This glossary should explain some of the lingo I'm talking. All links written in italics point you to a particular entry in the glossary.
If you have a question or if you miss anything in the glossary, please email me: firstname.lastname@example.org
The content is partly my own opinion. I don't grant for its correctness.
Circuit simulating the behaviour of an ideal diode. A normal diode has a voltage drop of several hundred mV
in forward-direction, causing energy loss in the diode and in the solar cell. The latter is due to a shift
of the operating point. An active diode measured the voltage over its terminals with an OP, switching a
Pascal-like programming language with strict syntax.
Used e.g. from the Pentagon for military projects, because the compiler can be verified
formally, that means, a mathematical proof is done. This way, many typical programming
errors can be avoided which could cause cevere problems otherwise.
Abbreviation for "analog-digital-converter". Changes an analog input signal (e.g. a voltage) into
a digital output signal. Characteristic for an ADC is the discretization of time and value,
the output signal does only change at special times and can only take special values. Compare with DAC.
Abbreviation for "ampere-hour". Designates an amount of electric charge. Used for accumulators
to denominate their capacity. Because the voltage of an accumulator is nearly constant, you can
calculate the stored energy from the given Ah-rating, e.g. 12Vx100Ah=1.2kWh.
Name of the world-rekord-processor family of Digital Equipment (DEC). The momentary flagship,
the 21264, is a 64-Bit-RISC-processor in
CMOS-technology, running at over 700MHz at the moment.
means a continuous thing for both time and value. Opposite to "digital".
The probably most famous fractal. The name comes from the form of the complex graph, remembering at a
man consisting of apples. Also known as Mandelbrot-function.
are solar cells of amorphous silicon. Amorphous means "non crystalline". Their advantage
in opposite to other crystalline types is the low price caused by the simple manufacturability.
A disadvantage is the low efficiency, but this compensates at bad weather or partially shading, when
a-Si-cells offer more current than crystalline types.
Elementary programming language. You directly program with your computers commands. Assembler
allows very efficient programs, but its handling is difficult and the program is bound to a specific
computer model, e.g. a PC.
Abbreviation for "basic input-output system". Firmware stored in the computers ROM,
offering the most important hardware-related services. Beside self-test, hardware-detection, real-time-clock,
keyboard- and screen-functions also mass storage functions (e.g. floppy read/write) are offeres, on which an
operating system must rely during the boot process.
Language evaluated during the "PCIO"-project, describing bit pattern (digital signals)
BJT (bipolar junction transistor). Most important semiconductor device, foundation for
integrated circuits. You may think of it being an electrically controlled valve or current amplifier.
Modern bipolar transistors work up to the three-digit GHz-range.
Similar to a buffer battery a buffer capacitor is an electrolyte capacitor to bridge the time of a supply failure.
In contrast to a battery or an accumulator, its lifetime is much larger and no complicated charging circuitry is needed.
Abbrev. for "computer aided design".
Just to be mentioned :) american sports car.
Abbrev. for "charge coupled device". CCD's are used for filters or as sensor elements. Electronic
cameras get their picture from a CCD-sensor. The inner consists of a matrix of light sensitive elements,
converting light into current. Because of the huge amount of elements, a direct wiring is not suitable.
Therefore the charge packets generated during lightning are passed by electric fields until they reach
a connection point. This way the name "charge coupled".
Abbrev. for "complex instruction set computer". Designated a processor with very large command set.
A typical representative of this family is the 86' processor of the PC.
The advantage of the powerful instruction set comes at the cost of a complicated processor design,
high price and low execution speed. Nowadays, most processors use a RISC-kernel, feeded by a translating
logic, transforming complex CISC-commands into a chain of simple RISC-commands.
Unfortunate management unit of the FAT file system. FAT manages memory with 16-bit-pointers,
therefore only 65536 different memory blocks can be addressed. Under DOS invented for floppy disks only, it was adopted
by Microsoft for hard disks due to their low innovation potential. After an explosive growth of disk storage the
sice of cluster increased dramatically, so that a file containing a single byte used 16kB on a 1GB-partition.
For a long time the only solution was partitioning the disk, that is splitting a disk in several smaller drives.
Although other operating systems come with far more advanced file systems (HPFS unter OS/2,
NFS unter UNIX), Microsoft is playing around FAT with uncountable patches.
Abbrev. for "complementary MOS". Circuit technique initiating the high integration level of todays
Nearly all modern microprocessors (including the Alpha 21264 from Digital Equipment,
worlds fastest processor since many years, with about 16 million transistors) are produced in
CMOS-technology. Conceptual not the fastest design technique, but predestined for complex circuits and automaic layout.
Offered by the command interpreter. Within the command line the user can type in commands or view their results.
Program translating high-level languages (source code, e.g. C++ or
Pascal) into the machines language, thereby generating an executable program.
Software module, translating data from one presentation form into another. An example is the conversion
object used in the scanner project, collecting truecolor pixel data during the
scan (8 bit for each red, blue, green), transforming it into 8 bit pseudocolor
(color table with 256 entries, 6 bit for each r,g,b).
program of an operating system which allows entries from the user and executed the commands you gave in.
Main part in old systems like DOS or CP/M. Nowadays pushed to the background by graphical user interfaces,
but still the most efficient way to work with a computer.
Extension of the language C for objects. Wide spread use, with an abstraction level somewhere between
assembler and pascal. Allows many dangerous constructs and therefore favours difficult
to find bugs.
Abbrev. for "digital-analog-converter". Opposite of the ADC. Converts a digital
input signal into an analog output signal, therefore a time- and value-discrete signal is convertet into a
time-continuous, value-discrete signal.
Program to assist you in finding software errors, called bugs.
means a time- and value-discrete signal. Normally a digital signal changeds its logic state once during a clock cycle.
Opposite to analog.
Abbrev. for "dual in-line". Usual package form for ICs in the past, where the pins lie in two rows
with 2.54mm (1/10") distance. The pins are put through holes in the circuit board and are soldered
from the back side. Nowadays the SMD-package is used, mostly.
Simple semiconductor element, comparable to a valve. The ideal diode is blocking electric current in one direction
and conducting it in the other. The real diode causes a voltage drop and energy loss in the forward direction,
therefore power electronics sometimes use active diodes.
Abbrev. for "direct video extension". Programming interface for OS/2, enabling fast graphics (e.g. video).
Abbrev. for "direct memory access". Using DMA, data transfer between memory blocks or between memory and periphery
can be done without blocking the processor. With this parallel operation the computers performance can be enhanced.
Abbrev. for "disk operating system". Legendary PC operating system. Originally called "QDOS" (quick and dirty operating system),
then renamed by Microsoft-founder Bill Gates into "MS-DOS" (Microsoft disk operating system). The original name implies
the numerous defects of the system, which are even found in todays "Windows".
Special form of the bipolar transistor. During production, an electric field is generated in the basis, accelerating
charge carriers and thus enhancing device speed.
Program operating as an interface between an application and a special hardware. A graphics card driver has to
insure, that every program can display itself independently from the actual graphics board by means of a special command set.
Special character sequences which are interpreted by the printer as a command, not as text.
With escape-sequences you can change the size of letters or underline text etc.
Primitive file system under DOS/Windows. Manages memory of floppies or hard disks with a
16-bit-table, therefore it can only handle 65536 memory blocks, called cluster, per disk
drive. FAT doesn't distinguish between small and capital letters. File names are restricted to 8 characters
with additional 3 charactors for file type marking.
Abbrev. for "first in, first out". Electronic pendant of the "stand in a queue".
Used to synchronize data sources with different speed or unsynchronized data streams.
Built-in software, e.g. the computer BIOS. Normally, Firmware cannot be changed by the
designates the incidence of a change in signal or state. Given in Hz, that is number per second.
FM-radio works in the MHz-region (M=Mega=million), fast integrated circuits in the GHz-region (G=Giga=billion),
as does the mircowave oven.
A class of mathematical functions, usually working with two variables, giving a surface instead of a line as a graph.
Many of these graphs are very nice. Most known is the appel-man.
Device digitizing pictures (video) for the use in a computer.
Abbrev. for "field programmable gate array". A gate array consists of many functional blocks of the same type.
In a FPGA, the electric function can be changed by programming the circuit. This type of programming is different from the
programming of a microprocessor. A computer works through the program step by step with the CPU, but in
the FPGA the wiring of the IC is changed. FPGA's may serve as fast coprocessors this way, with programmable command set.
Abbrev. for "gallium-arsenide". A so called III-V-semiconductor, used for the fastest circuits for a
long time. Its disadvantage is the low availability of the material and the difficult fabrication of wafers, which are
normally much smaller than 4" in diameter, therefore increasing costs.
Optical pendant of the electric cable. A glass fiber consists of glass or transparent plastic and is
surrounded by a material with lower refraction index. If light enters the fiber, it is refracted at the border
between the two materials, so it cannot leave the fiber. Glass fibers allow data transmission with much
more speed than possible in copper cable.
Generic term for electronic devices, that is, things you can touch. Contrary to software.
Abbrev. for "heterojunction bipolar transistor". The basis of this transistor is modified, so that a
transition between different materials is happening. Different effects causes faster devices. Important representative is the
Abbrev. for "hardware description language".
Similar to a programming language a circuit is desribed formally. With modern tools you can test a circuit
prior to its realization. A HDL compiler may transform the circuit description in programming commands for a FPGA.
Known dialects are Abel, PALASM, VHDL and Verilog. For a long time only digital
circuits were descrived this way. More and more, analog circuits are in focus, too, e.g. by HDL-A.
Output format for executable files or similar. Used for debugging purposes. A hexdump shows the content of a file
in form of characters and their hexadecimal code.
Abbrev. for "high performance file system".
HPFS is the usual file system under OS/2, coming without clustering and providing
enhanced security against data loss. By skilful placing of the information, HPFS is faster than FAT, too.
You can use much longer filenames with small and capital letters. However, for accessing a file, spelling doesn't matter.
Abbrev. for "hypertext markup language". Page-description language, simplified for the internet. WWW-projects like this
one are written in HTML.
Mounting technique, where several elements are placed on a substrate (Al2O3-ceramics) by special pastes
by silk-screen print, followed by a burning process. Semiconductors are bonded "naked" (without package) or
soldered in SMD packages. Complete modules are often founded in synthetic resin.
IC, consists of several (up to some million) transistors, resistors and capacitors
(sometimes planar inductors, too). These are built in a numerous process steps on a ultra-clean silicon disk (the wafer).
These processes include the fabrication of "masks", used for structuring a light sensitive varnish. After etching the enlightened parts
of the varnish, so calles dotants are brought in by diffusion of ion implantation. This modifies the electrical
behaviour of the silicon.
Abbrev. for "input/output". The computer has to exchange information in several ways, that is, he has to
accept data or to provide data. At lowest level, the circuit level, the computer has a set of so called
port addresses and memory addresses. A 8-bit
port holds 8 binary signals, for example. Port-mapped I/O is used, if many different functions has to be fed with a small amount
of data. In the case of a frame grabber it makes more sense to provide the data as a virtual memory block. This is called memory-mapped I/O.
long measure. One inch (1") is 25.4mm. The inch is the commonly used measure in electronics,
mostly 1/10" or 1/20" of distance is found for pin distances of components.
Abbrev. for "interrupt request". With the help of interrupts a device can get the attention of the
processor, e.g. because an error appeared or new data is ready. This way the processor dosn't have
to look at all available ports all the time, which is called polling.
IRQs provide flexibility and can enhance performance.
Abbrev. for "industry standard architecture". This extension bus was invented with the IBM-XT
and had at first a width of 8-bit and 4.77MHz clock frequency. With the 286,
it was expanded to 16 bit and 8MHz. Sadly, the name of the bus doesn't speak for its standardizazion. Only few years ago, the IEEE 996
standard was defined, still not answering all design questions. Often the bus is clocked with 12.5MHz, although even at 8MHz
some timing problems occur, so the operation of ISA extensions is not reliable. The maximum throughput is
reached with one word every two clock cycles, this is 8MB/s at 16-bit and 8MHz. After becoming a serious
bottleneck, the PCI-bus was invented.
Abbrev. for "in system programmable LSI", LSI="large scale integrated (IC)".
An IC-family from Lattice, reprogrammable in the circuit. The configuration data is stored in a
EEPROM (non-volatile memory). They are members of the EPDL-family.
Programming language, similar to C++. Java was invented by Sun Microsystems
to realize platform independent software, that is software, which may run under many different
operating systems on different computer architectures without special adaption. Java was triggered by the
growth of the internet, but also by the software monopoly of Microsoft.
To gain platform independence, the source code may be preprocessed by a sort of interpreter, generating a
special "bytecode" which is interpreted on the target machine, or it is interpreted directly.
Simplified version of Java without the need for precompilation from the programmers side.
Input device, remembering at a planes control stick. A Joystick provides at least a value for a 2-dimensional point
to the computer.
Abbrev. for "light emitting diode". Semiconductor, emitting light of a
defined wavelength when current flows. Because of ist high efficiency, its robustness and its fast reaction LED have replaced bulbs for displays.
Device fur simultaneous measurement of numerous digital signals.
Normally the computers main memory is meant.
mercury vapour lamp
Discharge-lamp, producing light of defined wavelenghts by ionization of mercury atomes with accelerated electrons.
Neonlights, flash lights and Xenon-spotlights are examples.
Electromagnetic waves in the GHz-range. Related to radio waves or light. Used for mobile phones,
RADAR, microwave ovens etc.
Transistor with isoliated control terminal. By collection of electric charge on the gate a conducting channel
between the source and the drain contact is build. The MOS transistor is slower than a bipolar transistor, but is simple
to produce and therefore cheap. The field of high-integration is based on MOS.
The ability of an operating system to run several programs simultaneously and independent from
another. If a computer only has one CPU, this is achieved by distributing the computing power
by a so-called scheduler, running each program for a small amount of time, calculated by special
criterions. UNIX and OS/2 offer a good multitasking.
See multithreading also.
Multi-purpose-measuring instrument. Often a Voltage- Ampere- and Ohmmeter is combined.
The ability of an operating system to run parts of a single program simultaneously. If the computer only
has a single CPU, this is done as in the case of multitasking by a scheduler.
Communication between threads is considerably faster than communication between programs, because threads use the same address space
and can therefore use faster mechanisms. Prerequisite for multithreading is multitasking, OS/2 and
UNIX offer both.
Software-objects are a way to combine both data and manipulation methods into one unit. By the definition of
an interface to the outer the management and maintenance of big projects is simplified. By the possibility to
transmit methods new objects can profit from older ones, thereby the programming efficiency increases.
Abbrev. for "operational amplifier". An operational amplifier has an inverting and a non-inverting
input. The output voltage is the extremely gained difference between the inputs. By external circuitry
nearly any function may be realized.
Multitasking-, multithreading- and SMP-enabled
operating system from IBM. At first, OS/2 was developed together
with Microsoft to derive a successor for the old DOS. Because it needed to much memory at this time, it couldn't
get through against Windows, tinked by Microsoft the same time, although Windows was deficient in its concept
and faulty from the beginning, making it to a productivity killer.
DOS- and many Windows-programs can work seamlessy under OS/2. As under UNIX, there is a memory protection, so that
dirty programs or viruses cannot interfere or spread. Windows, on the other hand, has to be called a culture medium
in this respect. OS/2 offeres as the only operating system a mature command line with a good script language (REXX)
as well as a powerful graphical Interface, the presentation manager (PM).
Measuring instrument displaying an input signal over time. Used for viewing time-variant signals.
"all around look", the ability of a RADAR system to view 360°.
are informations influencing the behaviour of a program. Often typed in into the command line right after
the command name.
are programs, in which certain parts can work independently and parallel. See multithreading.
Separating a mass storage (e.g. hard disk) in several inedpendent storage areas (drives) is called
partitioning. Under FAT partitions are necessary to reduce the size of clusters.
One of the numerous programming languages of Niklaus Wirth. Similar to Ada,
but less strict. Pascal has conquered a big fan community, pushed by the at first great work of Borland (today Inprise). Borlands
dialect Turbo-Pascal became fast a quasi-standard, because not only the developement environment
was matured, but also some constructs were implemented which were not planned at first. The most important
add-on was the implementation of objects. In comparison to C++,
Pascal is both more strict and abstract.
Abbrev. for "peripheral component interconnect bus". Successor of the ISA-bus.
The PCI-bus is from the beginning (relativly) strict specified and in contrast to the
ISA-bus not bound to a special architecture, so that it is found not only in PC's but also in Sun- and
DEC-workstations. In its slowliest version he has a width of 32 bit and is working at 33MHz
bus clock. By means of burst transfer cycles he can transfer one word per cycle, thus offering 132MB/s throughput.
There are extensions to 64 bit bus width and 66MHz bus clock, providing a maximum of 528MB/s throughput.
Everything not essentially belonging to a computer. Interfaces, keyboard, mouse, printer etc. are peripherals of the computer.
Piezo-elektric materials bend under the influence of an electric field or cause a voltage unter
mechanical pressure. This effect is often used for small buzzers, high frequency loudspeakers or
microphones. Special working areas are mechanical actuators, providing accurate movement in
Abbrev. for "programmable logic device".
There are numerous architectures available, all providing programmable interconnects ond logic areas.
Reprogrammable chips are called EPLD, complex types CPLD. An example for a CPLD is the ispLSI-family from Lattice.
In contrast to FPGAs PLDs have a relatively primitive structure, making them fast and easy to program, but less
contrary to interrupt handling. During polling, the program is checking the state of a port
(e.g. the keyboard) for new data. Offers the shortest reaction time, but consumes unnecessary computing power.
the "outdoor" of a computer. Ports are one of the two possible I/O-possibilities. A 8-bit-port,
owning a special address, provides 8 digital lines for data interchange.
Abbrev. for "pseudo random binary sequence".
PRBS-sequences are used for scrambling data or testing communication-related circuits.
or PM. Graphical user-interface under OS/2.
As in the case of real live concurrency situations exist in the computer, where some decision
about what do do next has do be done. You can give priorities to interrupts, processes
or threads, taking off these decision.
Part of a program, fulfilling a special function inside the program, having a defined interface to
exchange data with other parts of the program. A "function" is in principal the same, but its syntax allows
chaining of functions as usual in mathematics.
or CPU (central processing unit), heart of the computer. The CPU is the device executing
the commands of a program and calculating results. In detail, we have to distinguish between the
CPU for handling integer arithmetic and the FPU (floating point unit) for non-integer mathematics.
formal (non-natural) language with restricted vocabulary and clearly defined syntax.
Programming languages are the interface between the programmer and the computer, allowing the accurate
description of a problem, enabling the generation of an executable program. Examples are Assembler,
C++, Pascal and Ada.
is a special operating mode of the 86' processor family.
In protected-mode, four privilege levels are distinguished, receiving different levels of protection. In a model of rings,
the inner one is ring 0, the outer ring 3. Ring 0 is reserved for the operating system kernel, ring 3 for
user applications, that is, possibly defective or virulent programs. A program in ring 3 cannot access ring 3, this way a virus cannot
infect the operating system. The program has to call the operating system by means of special interface
mechanisms. In the other direction there are protection mechanisms, too. OS/2 uses ring 0 for the kernel,
ring 2 for device drivers and ring 3 for applications, UNIX uses only ring 0
for the system and ring 3 for applications. Windoze is not worth to be mentioned at this point.
In contrast to truecolor, where every point of a picture has an individual color, a preudocolor
picture has an index to a color table for every point. The length of this table is limited (e.g. to 256 entries),
so that only a finite amount of colours is available to a picture. During translation of a truecolor picture
into pseudocolor, the "most important" colors have to be calculated und put in the table. See
pulse width modulation
or PWM. Technique to drive a load alternatively between the state on and off. This way you can reduce the large losses
typically produced by other circuits. A special operating point can be achieved by varying the duration of the on-time
during a switching cycle.
Abbrev. for "piecewise linear (source)". A special source in circuit simulators, where you can define certain quantities at certain
time values. At times other than those defined, the source value is linearly interpolated.
Abbrev. for "radio detection and ranging". Measures the runtime of transmitted microwave bursts.
Abbrev. for "random access memory". The computer main memory is a RAM in order to have fast access
to every information at every time, reading and writing.
in this contect a general recording unit, e.g. a list of files to be printed (printing recorder).
elektromagnetic operated switch. The operating current in an inductor produces a magnetic field,
throwing the switch.
Abbrev. for "reduced instruction set computer". For the developement of a CPU several conditions have to be met, such
as yield, price, and speed. A processor with lots of complex commands needs a big amount of space and can only
made faster with big efforts. A RISC processor only implements a minimum of instructions which are all highly optimized.
Other commands have to be implemented by a chain of simpler commands. In principal, all modern CPU kernels are RISC-based.
Abbrev. for "read only memory" The computer BIOS is an example for a ROM. It offers random access like a
RAM, but is not writable.
Abbrev. for "standard application architecture". Defines a uniform behaviour of programs
regarding keyboard and mouse functions, the structure of menus etc. SAA is intended to simplify
the deal with new programs by providing a known surrounding, not diverting from the programs task.
A digital oscilloscope (DSO), specialized for the measurement of fast periodis signals. DSOs work
with fast memory and precision timers.
mechanical actuator, e.g. rotating an axis into a defined angle.
Copy of a ROM or RAM-region in order to speed up access or to save power.
Abbrev. for "silicon-germanium". At the moment, several attempth are made to speed up silicon based circuits
by adding of small amounts of germanium. Two approaches are the drift transistor and the
heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT).
Abbrev. for "surface mounted device", the modern packaging system for integrated circuits. In contrast
to DIL-packages no drillings are necessary for mounting, the pin distance is much smaller
(typ. 1.27mm (1/20") ... 0.8mm).
Abbrev. for "symmetrical multi processing". SMP-computers differ only little from normal computers,
thus they are relatively cheap and can run almost all programs written for single-processor-machines.
In a SMP-computer more than one processor is working on a commonly shared memory, but on different
data or programs (MIMD). The partition of the load is done by the operating system scheduler, which has to offer
multitasking abilities at least. OS/2 and UNIX
are SMP-enabled systems.
Abbrev. for "sound detection and ranging". Similar to RADAR, but working with ultrasonic waves (40kHz... MHz)
instead of microwaves.
General term for things you cannot hold in hands, normally programs or data. A subdivision is firmware, which
is built into a device and normally cannot be changed in contrast to other software.
Measures the amplitudes of different frequencies in a complex signal.
Abbrev. for "simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis". SPICE-simulators
can show you the behaviour of a circuit prior to its realization and are necessary for efficient optimization.
Abbrev. for "speicherprogrammierbare Steuerung" or "memory programmable control". Specialized computers for industrial
controlling purposes with special commands for single-bit manipulation and self-monitoring (watchdogs).
Switching regulator, whose output voltage exeeds its input voltage. Necessary in many battery powered
systems, often found in solar power stations, too.
regulate a value not by variation of a controllable resistor or similar lossy methods, but
switch a source periodically on and off. The generated ripple is filtered by high quality inductors
and capacitors, therefore the efficiency is very high. The regulation is similar to the pulse width
Electronic semiconductor device with a controlling and a load circle. Major families are
bipolar transistors and MOSFETs.
Contrary to pseudocolor. With truecolor, every point of a picture has an individual color.
Abbrev. for "transistor-transistor-logic". Circuit family or IC-family with several hundred specialized members,
such as AND-gates.
Multitasking, multiuser, SMP- and networking
operating system. In total the most advanced operating system, which lacks a
functional graphical user interface.
Standardization commitee and standard for graphics cards. VESA-compatible cards tell the program
their abilities and how they are programmed. Prior to the VESA standard, at DOS-times, every program had to be delivered
with its own driver, thereby channeling the graphics chip market. One famous chip was the ET4000 from Tseng Labs.
Abbrev. for "VHSIC HDL" or "very high speed integrated circuit hardware description
language". Member of the HDL-languages.
Metallized drilling in a circuit board. Connecting wired on different layers on the board.
denominates a textual command line under OS/2 which is embed into the
graphical Interface. Contrary to full-screen text-windows (NoVIO), which you know from DOS.
DOS-based immature operating system. Should overcome the limitations of DOS
(memory, graphisc) but relies on the same ancient code. The non-existing concept and the sloppy programming results in numerous crashes
and trial-and-error sessions. The lack of memory protection invites viruses, the networking capabilities are
worser than worse, there are no security mechanisms, the file system is age-old, the multitasking is not more
than a marketing gag. Operation is unlogical and uncomfortable. Every new version is incompatible to the last.
But millions of flies cannot be wrong :)
Abbrev. for "wireless LAN" or "wireless local area network".
A LAN is a local network, connecting e.g. the computers inside an office.
To increase flexibility and to reduce costs implied in cabling, a wireless approach is wanted,
similar to wireless phones.
Abbreviation for "world wide web". It denominates the graphically part of the internet, consisting
of HTML and Java.
The start of the PC-family from IBM, which came with a 8088 microprocessor
and a 8-bit-ISA-bus.
Mechanicel unit to shift a "table" (e.g. a mounting plate for a sensor)
in three axis (lengthwise, crosswise, and high).
hmmm, any entries for "Y" ?
The first microprocessor of the 86' family from Intel, who jumped into the mass market with the
XT, the father of the personal computer (PC). The 8088 started Intels todays quasi-monopoly in the processor market.
Although internally a 16-bit processor, the 8088 had only 8 external data lines, thereby reducing system costs.
The processors of the 8088 family are CISC-based.
Worlds fastest single processor.
A 64-bit-microprocessor from Digital Equipment (DEC) with approx. 16 million
transistors, fabricated in CMOS-technology. Four integer and two floating-point units,
clock frequencies above 700MHz.